Gönderen Konu: Uzaysal Yönetim 2011 MD göktaşının dünya yakınından geçmesinin anımsattığı  (Okunma sayısı 13105 defa)

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Uzaysal Yonetim


Hasan Bülent Paksoy


Gunumuzde, birtakim "˜gelecek uzaysal olaylarin" nasil yer alacabilecegi tartisilmakta.  Bir kume uzay bilimcisine gore, Gunes odakli gezegenler cevresinde dolasan uzay taslarindan (kuyruklu yildiz)  biri Dunya"ya carpabilir.  Ses duvari otesi bir hiz ile yer alabilecek bu istenmeyen bulusma, Hirosima"ya dusen atom bombasinin gucunden bir milyon kez artik bir gucte olabilecek.  Bu carpisma sonucu ortaya cikacak dogasal veriler, insanlarin bildigi tur dunyanin sonu olacaktir.  Cunku, dunyayi koruyucu (ve cigerlere cekilen, insanligi yasatici) hava, bu carpisma nedeni ile tutusup yanabilecektir.

Bu carpisma onlenebilir mi? "˜Kuskusuz."  Peki, kim bu carpismanin onune gecebilir?  Uzay"a yapma gerec ve uydular gonderebilen ulusal birimler. 

Onemli sorulardan biri daha bu noktada onumuze cikar:  Neden bu tur yetenekleri bunyesinde barindiran ulkeler dunya"yi ve insanligi kurtarmak icin ozverilerini ve gelirini kullansin?  Bir yanit:  "cunku, kurtaracaklari arasinda oz varliklari da var." Ama, bu ulkelerin vergi verenleri (yalnizca alis-veris kuruluslarinca yapilamayacak kadar buyuk bir is oldugundan)  ozverilerini butun dunya ile paylasmak isteyecekler mi?  Yoksa, bu ozverileri karsiligi, insanliktan birseyler istemeleri olasilik icinde mi? 

Uzay"I gozetleyen cok sayida uzaybilimci kumeleri oldugu biliniyor.  Bu kumelerin niteliklerine ve bilim birikimlerine gore, 2012 ile 2030 yillari arasinda, dunya ile bu tur bir kuyruklu yildiz (uzay tasi) arasinda bir carpisma kacinilmaz.  Ama, butun dunya uzerindeki yasam"a son verebilecek bu tur bir gorkemli karabasan kacinilmaz degil.  Cunku, insanlik, uzay"a bir ya da birkac yapma gerec gondererek bu olasi carpismayi onleyebilecek veri ve yetenekleri bugunden isbasina getirebilecek yetenekte. 

Pekiyi, neden yapilmiyor?  Yukarida da ozetlendigi gibi, giderlerini kimlerin karsilayacagi; yapabilecek uluslarin, dunyayi kurtarma karsiliginda, dunya uzerinde yasayanlardan neler isteyecekleri.

Dunya"yi kurtarmak islemi, kullanilmasi gerekli kaynaklar ve yetenekler, bir tek toplumun (oz ic yonetim dengesini bozmadan) tek basina kaldirabileceginden yuksek olabilir mi?  Olabilir de, olmayabilir de.  Ama isin icinde, daha onceden dusunulmus bir dizi istek ve dusunce var ise, bu istek ve dusunceler, gun isigina cikmak icin sirada bekliyor ise, verilecek yanitlar degisik olabilir.  Ornegin, dunyayi "˜kurtarabilecek" toplumlarin yoneticileri arasinda, isin icine (degisik nedenler ile) Birlesmis Milletlerin karismasini isteyenler var ise, "˜cozum" atiliminin basina Birlesmis Milletler neden getirilmesin?  Ne de olsa, dunya"yi bekleyen kotu sonucu ortadan kaldirabilmek icin butun dunya bir araya gelip, ortak cozum uretmiyor mu?  Birlesmis Milletler, cok uluslu olarak cozum atilimini gerceklestirecek yapilanmayi yonetebilir.  Boylelikle "˜insanlik" gelecegini saglama almayi, hem de "˜isbirligi icinde"  gerceklestirmeyi basarabilir.  Dogal olarak, bu cozum, giderleri gerektireceginden, butun dunya kucuk bir "˜vergi"yi Birlesmis Milletlerden esirgemeyeceklerdir.  Degil mi?  Boylelikle, uluslarustu bir vergi ilk olarak "˜yasallastirilmis" olmayacak mi?  Eger Dunya Alis-Veris Orgutu bu tur bir kuresel vergiyi gunumuze (kendi ic yonetimi disinda hicbir kurum"a bilgi vermeden) yururluge koymadi ise?

Bu durumda, iki turlu gercek oldugu ileri surulebilir:

1. Acik:   Ornek---Turkiye, Akdeniz ile Karadeniz arasinda konuslanmistir.  Denizlerin adlari degistirilse bile, bu gercek degismez.

2.Turetilmis:   Ornek---Dunya, bugunku ulusal yonetimlerin toplami olarak yasatilamaz, ille de belirli bir "˜tek odak" yonetimine gerek vardir.

Herseyden once, ikinci "˜gercegin" butun toplumlarca olumlu gorulebilmesi icin, belirli ek "˜gerceklere" de gerek vardir.  Bu gerceklerin toplumlarca olumlu gorulebilmesi nasil saglanabilir?  Cok sert bir dizi "˜kurgusal olabilirliklerin" kamu oyuna sunulmasi ve cozum beklentilerinin yaratilmasi ile.   Bir goktasinin dunyaya carpma olasiligi bu tur bir turetilmis bir gercek olabilir mi?  Bu turetilmis gercegin ardinda bir kat daha gercek yatabilir mi?  Ornegin, "Goktaslari ansizin karanliklar icinden cikip hiz ile dunyaya yaklasmaya baslayabilir" gorusu ile konuya girilebilir.  "Bu tur ansizin bos yakalanmak yerine, dunya cevresinde donecek yapma uydulara birkac yuksek patlayici yukleyip karsilik verme zamanini kisaltabiliriz"  ek konusu ile ortam yaratilabilir. 

"Pek iyi, olsun"  olur"u alindiktan sonra, bu Goktasi Savar Uydularin uzerine konulan yuksek patlayicilarin, uzaya degil de dunyaya bakacak (ornegin, vergi vermeyen bir ulus"a donuk olarak) bicimde uretilip-uretilmedigini vergi verenler nasil bilecek?   Yalnizca bize guvenin-inanin diyenlerin sozu ile mi? 

Bu tur, uluslarustu bir verginin, butun toplumlarca istekli olarak "˜uygun gorulmesi" ve uygulamaya konulmasi ne anlama gelebilir?  Bundan sonra bu tur vergilerin, dunya uzerindeki toplumlarin ve uluslarin toplu gelirlerinin belirli bir yuzdesi olarak, bundan boyle duzenlice Birlesmis Milletlere aktarmasi mi?  Es duzeyde, butun toplumlarin ulusal yargi ve geleceklerini yonlendirmekte, Birlesmis Milletlerin oncelikle ongordugu yonlerde atilimlara girmelerinin "˜yaptirim" katina cikarilmasi gelismi mi? 

Butun bu yaptirimlar, butun Birlesmis Milletler uyelerine es duzeyde mi uygulanacak?  Yoksa, Birlesmis Milletler icinde "yonetici ulkeler kesimi" mi olusacak; bu yonetici ulkeler kesiminin "yonetilen ulkeler" uzerinde bir konum ile, butun bu islemlerden cikarlari neler olabilecek?   Baska bir deyis ile, Eger Birlesmis Milletler icinde bir yonetici kesim olusacak ise, bu yonetici kesim"in elde edebilecegi "˜ek gelir" ya da "˜yonetim onceligi" ne olabilir? 

Eger Birlesmis Milletler icinde Yoneten ve yonetilen ulkeler ayricaliklari olusabilecek ise, bu ayricaliklar ne gibi veriler uzerine kurulabilecek?  Bir ulus ulkenin yillik toplu gelirinin toplumu olusturan bireylere bolunmesi sonucu, kisisel gelirin diger ulkelere olan oranda yuksek olmasi mi?  Yoksa, uzay bilim ve uygulamalarinda yetenekleri, birikimi sinanmis kurumlari olmasi ile mi? 

Eger yalniz gelir ele alinacak olursa, uzay bilimleri gelismemis ama kisi basina geliri yuksek ulkeler yoneticiler arasina girebilecek. 

Bu durumda iki ek soru"ya daha gerek gorulebilir:

1. "Dunya Kurtarildiktan" sonra, bu "˜olasi (gunumuz icin "˜kurgusal") vergiler kaldirilacak mi?  Yoksa, ilerideki baska bir "sakincali duruma" da el koymak icin vergi gelirleri ozel bir bankada mi toplanacak?

2.  Eger bu tur uluslarustu vergiler konulmaya (ve arttirilmaya) baslar ise, adi gecen vergi gelirleri bir uluslarustu ordu icin kullanilmaya baslanabilir mi?  Boyle bir ordu, gunumuz mavi tolgali Birlesmis Milletler gorevlileri gibi catisan ulus ya da toplumlar arasinda baris gorevi yapmayi mi surdurecekler? 

Istikbal goklerdedir.




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Ynt: Uzaysal Yonetim 2011 MD goktasinin dunya yakinindan gecmesinin animsattigi
« Yanıtla #1 : Haziran 27, 2011, 04:50:35 ÖÖ »
27 Haziran 2011 gunu, otobus buyuklugunde bir goktasi dunya"ya 12,000 km uzakliktan gececek.
Dunyanin gobegi ekvator"un 40,000 km oldugunu unutmadan, ve bu buyuklukte bir goktasinin dunya"ya carpmasinin ortaya cikaracagi sorunlari da animsayarak, bir soru sorulabilir.
Bu goktasi neden birkac gun once bulundu?
1236 goktasinin dunya"ya carpabilecek yorungede olmasi uzerine ne dusunulebilir?


Asteroid to Pass Extremely Close By Earth On Monday
SPACE.com


    Atlantis crew prepares for launch Play Video Space Video:Atlantis crew prepares for launch Reuters

Joe Rao, SPACE.com Skywatching Columnist
Space.com "“ Sat Jun 25, 2:00 am ET

UPDATE for 5:35 p.m. ET: NASA has recalculated the time of closest approach for this event to be about 3 1/2 hours later than initially reported. The change is reflected below.

Here"s something to dwell on as you head to work next week: A small asteroid the size of a tour bus will make an extremely close pass by the Earth on Monday, but it poses no threat to the planet

The asteroid will make its closest approach at 1:14 p.m. EDT (1714 GMT) on June 27 and will pass just over 7,500 miles (12,000 kilometers) above the Earth"s surface, NASA officials say. At that particular moment, the asteroid "” which scientists have named 2011 MD "” will be sailing high off the coast of Antarctica, almost 2,000 miles (3,218 km) south-southwest of South Africa.

Asteroid 2011 MD was discovered Wednesday (June 22) by LINEAR, a pair of robotic telescopes in New Mexico that scan the skies for near-Earth asteroids. The best estimates suggest that this asteroid is between 29 to 98 feet (9 to 30 meters) wide.

According to NASA"s Near-Earth Object Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., an object of this size can be expected to come this close to Earth about every 6 years or so, on average. [Photo of asteroid 2011MD trajectory]

"There is no chance that 2011 MD will hit Earth but scientists will use the close pass as opportunity to study it w/ radar observations," astronomers with NASA"s Asteroid Watch program at JPL wrote in a Twitter post Thursday (June 23).

Even if the asteroid were to enter Earth"s atmosphere, it likely wouldn"t reach the surface, they added.

"Asteroid 2011 MD measures about 10 meters. Stony asteroids less than 25 m would break up in Earth"s atmosphere & not cause ground damage," Asteroid Watch scientists said.

The asteroid"s upcoming Earth flyby will be a close shave, but not a record for nearby passing asteroids. The record is currently held by the asteroid 2011 CQ1, which came within 3,400 miles (5,471 kilometers) of Earth on Feb. 4 of this year.



A tricky skywatching target

For several hours prior to its closest approach, 2011 MD will be visible in moderately-large amateur telescopes. But despite its close approach, actually seeing this asteroid will not be an easy task.

"These objects are so small (10 meters) that normally a sizeable telescope is required," Asteroid Watch scientists warned.

You will need to have access to an excellent star atlas, and because it will be moving so rapidly you"ll also need the very latest data from the Minor Planet Center to track its precise course against the background stars. The asteroid is not expected to get very bright; about 250 times dimmer than the faintest stars visible to the eye without optical aid. [Photos: Asteroids in Deep Space]

The asteroid will pass so close that Earth"s gravity will sharply alter the asteroid"s trajectory.

After making its closest pass to Earth, the asteroid will zoom through the zone of geosynchronous satellites. The chance of a collision with a satellite or piece of space junk is exceedingly remote.

History of near-Earth asteroids

On Oct. 28, 1937, German astronomer Karl Reinmuth (1892-1979) accidentally photographed the long trail of a fast moving asteroid. Two nights later, this asteroid passed within 460,000 miles of the Earth. Reinmuth named it Hermes, after the Olympian god of boundaries and travelers.

Since the vast majority of asteroids (so far numbering over 210,000) congregate between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, astronomers at that time felt that Hermes" very close approach was an outstanding exception.

"Astronomers of the day were somewhat biased," explained NASA asteroid scientist Paul Chodas. "They had convinced themselves that collisions were too rare to consider."

Since then, astronomers have learned that asteroids can make very close approaches to Earth with far greater frequency than previously thought. Asteroid 2011 MD"s Monday pass is a prime example of that.

Of the 8,099 Near-Earth objects that have been discovered, about 827 of them are asteroids with a diameter of approximately a half-mile (1 km) or larger. About 1,236 of these NEOs have been classified as Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs).

NASA currently plans to launch a probe to visit one of these potentially dangerous near-Earth objects and return samples of the asteroid to Earth.

That mission will launch the OSIRIS-Rex asteroid probe in 2016 to rendezvous with the space rock 1999 RQ36 in 2020. The target asteroid is 1,900 feet (580 meters) wide and has a 1-in-1,800 chance of hitting Earth in the year 2170, and a 1-in-1,000 chance of slamming into us in 2182.

Joe Rao serves as an instructor and guest lecturer at New York"s Hayden Planetarium. He writes about astronomy for The New York Times and other publications, and he is also an on-camera meteorologist for News 12 Westchester, New York.

    Photos: Asteroids in Deep Space
    How NASA"s Asteroid Sample Return Mission Will Work (Infographic)



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Uzayın derinliklerindeki Dawn...
« Yanıtla #2 : Eylül 14, 2011, 12:04:11 ÖÖ »
Uzayın derinliklerindeki Dawn'ın büyük başarısı
http://tr.euronews.net/2011/08/05/uzayin-derinliklerindeki-dawn-in-buyuk-basarisi/   

NASA’nın ‘Dawn’ isimli uzay aracı, Mars ile Jüpiter arasında bulunan en büyük iki astreoid Vesta ve Ceres yoluna girdi. Dawn’ın astroidleri araştırma yolculuğu Eylül 2007’de başladı.

Vesta isimli astroid Mars ve Jüpiter arasında bulunuyor ve dünyadan 2.8 milyar kilometre mesafede duruyor. Bir göktaşının tüm yapısının inceleneceği görevde astreodilerin yapısı ağırlığı ve kütleleri hakkında bilgi sahibi olunacak. Dawn 2015 yılında ise 950 kilometre çapındaki asteroid kuşağının en büyük göktaşı Ceres’e ulaşacak.

euronews

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<a href="http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xkd6dx_uzayin-derinliklerindeki-dawn-in-buyuk-basarisi_news" target="_blank" class="aeva_link bbc_link new_win">http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xkd6dx_uzayin-derinliklerindeki-dawn-in-buyuk-basarisi_news</a>

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Ynt: Uzaysal Yonetim 2011 MD goktasinin dunya yakinindan gecmesinin animsattigi
« Yanıtla #3 : Haziran 20, 2014, 06:52:30 ÖS »
MD 2011 Göktaşını Amerikan Ulusal Uzay Yönetimi yakalamak için girişimde.



Grabbed by NASA
Associated Press
By SETH BORENSTEIN 16 hours ago

    NASA hoping to capture, research asteroids


WASHINGTON (AP) — NASA is zeroing in on the asteroids it wants to capture, haul near the moon and have astronauts visit.

Officials on Thursday described a prime candidate: A tiny asteroid that whizzed about 7,600 miles above Earth in 2011.

At 20 feet long, it is "the size of a delivery truck; we might actually be able to put this asteroid in a garage," said Northern Arizona University astronomer Michael Mommert, who studied the rock, which goes by the inelegant name of 2011 MD.

That asteroid also could be a pile of smaller rocks that fly together in formation.

NASA's plan is to grab an asteroid with a giant claw or capture it with a giant inflatable bag. The asteroid would be parked above the moon, with astronauts exploring in a later mission.

NASA executive Lindley Johnson said there will eventually be about 10 possible rocks for capture in the early 2020s, but they may not all be small asteroids.

There's a second option NASA is considering: Sending a spacecraft to a much larger asteroid, using a claw to pluck off a boulder that's less than 30 feet and taking it near to the moon.
View gallery
NASA Asteroid
This undated handout two-picture combo of artist conceptions provided by NASA/JPL Caltech shows what …

NASA will decide which option to pursue by the end of the year, said Michele Gates, program director for the asteroid mission.

So far, NASA has three candidates for each option. But Johnson said he expects more to be identified. NASA doesn't have to choose its final target until a year before launch, which could be as early as 2019.

But Thursday's press conference highlighted 2011 MD. That's because when it came close to Earth in 2011, it was examined by telescopes on Earth and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Details of the asteroid were published in an astronomy journal Thursday.

Those observations showed that it probably weighs around 100 tons but is so porous that about two-thirds is empty space and only one-third is rock, Mommert said.

NASA has touted the asteroid mission since the space shuttle fleet retired as a stepping stone to send crews to Mars.

The robotic cost of the mission would be about $1.2 billion, Gates said. But there's no good estimate yet for the astronaut part, which includes using a yet-to-be-built giant rocket, officials said.

____

Online:

NASA: http://www.nasa.gov/asteroidinitiative


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Disturbing Update: Gigantic Comets Threaten Earth, Planet-Sized 'Centaurs' Pose Greater Impact Threat Than Previously Known

Brad Ryder
12/30/2015 12:50am EST

Giant Comet AKA Centaur Impact

Apparently, gigantic comets, not asteroids pose a greater hazard to Earth than previously thought. Chilling statements from a team of researchers point to the recent discovery of hundreds of planet-sized space rocks, any one of which is capable of causing mass extinction and destruction of all life forms. If you're thinking about the movie Armageddon, you're not that far off, only this one involves killer comets

According to the Royal Astronomical Society (or RAS), Professors David Asher and Mark Bailey with Armagh Observatory and Professors Duncan Steel and Bill Napier of University of Buckingham revealed the results of their findings.  The team of astronomers fired a fierce warning shot to governing bodies around the world about the potential for catastrophic events should a comet impact the planet.

The scope of the men's' investigation centers on the last two decades of interplanetary potential Earth-smashers in the Asteroid belt. However, over the last two decades, scores of comets came into view that was once hidden by the orbits of other planets and the sun.

The giant comets called, "Centaurs," are enormous ice and dust bodies with diameters as large as 62 miles across. Their orbits are long, yet unstable, and occasionally the gravity of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn slingshots the killer comets towards Earth. Current estimates are about once ever 40,000 to 100,000 years.

    Monitoring of space objects should include giant ‘centaurs’ that could rain down debris for thousands of years, as…https://t.co/bEDwYtwV2T
    — J. Alberto Leyes (@MERLINIfilms) December 23, 2015

The typical debris tail often seen in literature occurs when the intense heat of the sun breaks up comets, as they get close. The research group warns that in the unfortunate chance a Centaur breaks apart, the resulting fragments would bombard the planet for 100,000 years.

The size of these rocks is impressive, but the size of their bulk is worthy of note. For example, one of these potentially deadly comets has a mass that is more than all the known asteroids in the belt that crosses Earth. A study co-author weighed in on the group’s recent findings.

"In the last three decades, we have invested a lot of effort in tracking and analyzing the risk of a collision between the Earth and an asteroid.

"Our work suggests we need to look beyond our immediate neighborhood too and look out beyond the orbit of Jupiter to find Centaurs.

"If we are right, then these distant comets could be a serious hazard, and it's time to understand them better."

If the impact of a gigantic comet doesn't end life on the planet, the resultant nuclear winter created by dust clouds will de disastrous. The consensus in academia is that a large comet impact caused the extinction of dinosaurs millions of years ago.

    The chance of being hit by a giant comet is much bigger than we thought, scientists claim https://t.co/WXwP2HVTVn
    — The Independent (@Independent) December 29, 2015

NASA recently announced it partnered with the Department of Energy to investigate nuclear options to defend against life-threatening asteroids and comets. The National Nuclear Security Administration and the space agency previously researched their respective methods of space and nuclear capabilities.

The two organizations will focus on medium-level threats -- space rocks from 164 to 492 feet in diameter. The reason is larger entities are known, through the use of highly advanced imaging technology, while smaller bodies -- still potentially deadly -- are often difficult to detect.

Nukes are preferred, as an atomic blast can change the trajectory to avoid a collision with Earth. Experts agree that merely blowing asteroids and comets up can break them into smaller fragments that can still pose a hazard to humans. However, it's unclear if advanced weaponry will have any effect at all on the size of comets that are believed to have wiped out dinosaurs.

The group's findings are published in the December issue of Astronomy & Geophysics (A&G), the Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society.



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Rusya, kitalararasi balistik fuzesini
2036 yilinda dunya yakinina gelecek olan
Apophis uzaytasini parcalamak icin
kullanack


Russia aims to point its ICBMs at the asteroid Apophis in 2036
digital-trends By Albert Khoury


Russian scientists are planning to tweak their ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) to target near-earth objects (NEOs), according to a report by news agency TASS. The news came from Sabit Saitgarayev, the leading researcher at the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau. The projectiles could be aimed at meteorites measuring 20-50 meters in size.  A meteorite is a chunk of debris that can originate from a sun-orbiting asteroid, and that survives the trip through the atmosphere to reach Earth’s surface.

The scientists plan to test their missiles on the asteroid 99942 Apophis, which Saitgarayev believes may pass “dangerously close” to Earth in 2036. There is a general consensus as to this expected close encounter, though NASA has “effectively ruled out the possibility” of an impact.

Related: NASA’s newest branch has one job: Protect the Planet from humongous asteroids

The lead scientist explains the reasoning behind his team’s work. “Most rockets work on boiling fuel,” Saitgarayev says. “Their fueling begins 10 days before the launch and, therefore, they are unfit for destroying meteorites similar to the Chelyabinsk meteorite in diameter, which are detected several hours before coming close to the Earth. For this purpose, intercontinental ballistic missiles can be used, which requires their upgrade.”

Saitgarayev says that modifying the solid-fueled ICBMs will require several million dollars and permission from the authorities. These are weapons of war, after all. It is unclear whether or not this project will ever come to fruition, though the work has already begun.

The Makeyev Design Bureau was established on December 16, 1947. The company specialized in developing long-rockets designed by the OKB-1 (Experimental Design Bureau), which was led by pioneering rocket designer Sergei Korolov. It was under Korolov’s direction that Russia launched the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957, and put the first man in space in 1961. In the mid-1950s, Maketev OKB began developing submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Today, its rockets are used to launch Russian satellites into space.
Also watch: Raimond de Hullu’s vision for Oas1s green buildings
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Russian scientists are planning to tweak their ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) to target near-earth objects (NEOs), according to a report by news agency TASS. The news came from Sabit Saitgarayev, the leading researcher at the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau. The projectiles could be aimed at meteorites measuring 20-50 meters in size.  A meteorite is a chunk of debris that can originate from a sun-orbiting asteroid, and that survives the trip through the atmosphere to reach Earth’s surface.

The scientists plan to test their missiles on the asteroid 99942 Apophis, which Saitgarayev believes may pass “dangerously close” to Earth in 2036. There is a general consensus as to this expected close encounter, though NASA has “effectively ruled out the possibility” of an impact.

Related: NASA’s newest branch has one job: Protect the Planet from humongous asteroids

The lead scientist explains the reasoning behind his team’s work. “Most rockets work on boiling fuel,” Saitgarayev says. “Their fueling begins 10 days before the launch and, therefore, they are unfit for destroying meteorites similar to the Chelyabinsk meteorite in diameter, which are detected several hours before coming close to the Earth. For this purpose, intercontinental ballistic missiles can be used, which requires their upgrade.”

Saitgarayev says that modifying the solid-fueled ICBMs will require several million dollars and permission from the authorities. These are weapons of war, after all. It is unclear whether or not this project will ever come to fruition, though the work has already begun.

The Makeyev Design Bureau was established on December 16, 1947. The company specialized in developing long-rockets designed by the OKB-1 (Experimental Design Bureau), which was led by pioneering rocket designer Sergei Korolov. It was under Korolov’s direction that Russia launched the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957, and put the first man in space in 1961. In the mid-1950s, Maketev OKB began developing submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Today, its rockets are used to launch Russian satellites into space.


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Huge comet unexpectedly whizzes past Earth

A large comet made a record pass by the Earth on March 23, enhancing scientific understanding and the interests of NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office.
By Lucy Schouten, Staff March 29, 2016   
   

Astronomers estimated that on March 23, a comet would fly closer to the Earth than any comet since 1770.

But Vishnu Reddy, a research scientist at the Arizona-based Planetary Science Institute, made his observations using NASA's infrared telescope in Hawai’i two weeks before the expected pass.

"I kind of had a hunch that, 'What if we get bad weather?'" Dr. Reddy says. "On the 23rd, as predicted, it got clouded out completely, so I was really fortunate to get those observations."
Recommended: Could you pass Astronomy 101? Take the quiz!

Reddy's hunch not only advanced academic understanding of comets and the universe, but it also aided NASA's goal of tracking and analyzing objects with the potential to impact Earth.
T
"One of the threats we always have to worry about when we study these comets is the threat they pose to life on Earth," Reddy says. "It’s important because if something is going to impact the earth, we want to know what it is made of.”

He says the comet was large, probably between 0.4 miles and 0.75 miles in diameter, but easier to study than most comets because so much of its atmosphere and iconic tail had burnt out. It was also remarkably bright, with a reflective ability similar to fresh asphalt, according to a press release.

Astronomers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., noticed the comet's shape was pear-like on one side and slanted like a brick on the other, with ridges and plains, according to a NASA release. These observations could help NASA track objects in the solar system that look like asteroids, but could actually be "comets in disguise" – dead comets with tails that are no longer visible.

"If a comet or a fragment of a comet were to impact the Earth it would have a completely different effect on the Earth compared to a stony asteroid," Reddy says.

With these questions in mind, NASA began allocating resources for tracking near-earth objects and space rocks in 2010. The program for tracking asteroids received just $4 million at first, then $20.4 million in 2012, and $40 million by 2014, according to a NASA statement. In 2016, the budget provided $50 million to establish a Planetary Defense Coordination Office.

The odds of impact are low, but the stakes couldn't be higher. Even crossing the orbital path of a massive comet could damage the Earth, astronomers from Armagh Observatory said at the Royal Astronomical Society in December, although they do not believe this is likely in the next 40,000 years.

"The effects of running through the debris trail of a large comet are liable to be complex," the authors wrote in the study.

This comet's orbit reached a point 2.2 million miles from Earth, and it was the third-closest comet in recorded history, so the odds of comet-Earth impact are low.

"There is a growing choir of concern regarding Near Earth Objects, or NEOs – spotting them and dealing with any Earth-threatening gatecrashers," Leonard David wrote for Space.com. "While the annual probability of the Earth being struck by a huge asteroid or comet is small, the consequences of such a collision are so calamitous that it is prudent to appraise the nature of the threat and prepare to deal with it."


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http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/bennus-journey

http://www.planetary.org/get-involved/messages/bennu/



Goktasi Bennu, dunyaya en yakin gecenlerin en buyuklerinden.
Gunes'in isisinin bir derece artmasi ile, dunyaya carpabilecek.
2016 yilinda, goktasi Bennu'ya inmesi icin bir arastirici gerec yol'a cikarilacak.

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Goktasi 2016 HO3
dunya'nin surekli yoldasi.
27 Nisan 2016 gunune kadar bilinmiyor idi.




cnn.com


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Saniyede 50 km hiz ile yol alan goktasi
dunya'ya carpar ise ne olur?

This is what would happen if a comet smacked into Earth

    Ali Sundermier

    July 25, 2016

   

Asteroid Earth Drawing Shutterstock

With the Delta Aquarid meteor shower going on right now, and the crowd-favorite Perseid meteor shower hot on its heels, the next few weeks are going to be the prime-time to watch some shooting stars light up the night sky.

But while dust-size bits of comets sizzling through our atmosphere put on a pretty awesome show, the consequences of Earth confronting one of these comets head-on could actually be pretty disastrous.

It's not something that you should be worried about, of course. NASA is on the lookout for any cosmic objects on a crash course with our planet, and it's found that the chances of us colliding with a comet or asteroid anytime soon are pretty low.

It's still interesting to think about, though. What would happen if one of these ancient, celestial chunks of ice, dust, and rock smacked into our planet?

The 16-mile-wide Swift-Tuttle comet — the progenitor of the Perseid meteor shower —hurtles through space at about 36 miles per second, more than 150 times the speed of sound.

If a comet of this size struck Earth, then the energy of the impact would be about as much as 300 times that of the asteroid that scientists believed wiped out the dinosaurs, Donald Yeomans, a senior research scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, told LiveScience.

And the size of a comet or asteroid isn't the only thing to consider with cosmic collisions. While the impact of the comet would be pretty destructive, the brunt of the damage would come from the gases it released in Earth's atmosphere.

"Sulfur dioxide would initially cause cooling, and then carbon dioxide would lead to long-term warming," LiveScience writes. "An event like this would likely cause the planet's climate to change drastically, leading to mass extinctions around the globe."

A comet colliding with Earth wouldn’t necessarily signal mass extinctions and the end of human civilization, though.

While a comet landing smack dab in the ocean could trigger earthquakes and tsunamis, its atmospheric effects would actually be eased by the ocean. Considering that 70% of Earth is covered in ocean, our odds aren't terrible.

But let's hope that we don't have to roll the dice anytime soon.



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NASA Eylul 2016 da Osiris-Rex arastirma gereci ile
Bennu adi verilen goktasina inecek.
Bu goktasi, dunyaya carpabilecek konumda.


NASA plans to launch study of asteroid that could destroy Earth
By Eileen AJ Connelly
July 31, 2016 | 6:59am
NASA is planning to launch a probe to study an asteroid that could one day pulverize the Earth.
The asteroid, named Bennu, crosses Earth’s orbit once every six years and has gotten ever closer since it was discovered in 1999, astronomers told the Sunday Times of London (paywall).
In 2135, Bennu will fly between the moon and Earth — a hair’s breadth in space terms, the Times reported. That’s so close that gravity from the Earth could effect Bennu’s orbit, “potentially putting it on course for the Earth later that century,” said Dante Lauretta, a professor of planetary science at Arizona University.
Bennu is about 1,600 feet in diameter and travels around the sun at an average of 63,000 mph.
The chance of an impact is small but significant, and if it happens, would be equivalent to triggering 3 billion tons of high explosive, 200 times the strength of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
“Bennu falls on the boundary, in terms of size, for an object capable of causing a global catastrophe,” Professor Mark Bailey of Northern Ireland’s Armagh Observatory told the Times.
The scenario eerily replicates the danger depicted in the 1998 movie “Armageddon,” in which Willis’ character was sent to implant a nuclear weapon to destroy an asteroid aiming for the Earth.
Modal Trigger Photo: Shutterstock
NASA will launch the Osiris-Rex probe mission to Bennu in September.
The probe’s journey will involve a year of orbiting the sun to build up speed before it slingshots back around Earth, using the planet’s gravity to align its orbit with the asteroid’s, the Times reports. They will rendezvous in August 2018.
Osiris-Rex will then spend a year mapping the asteroid and then hover above its surface to pick up some rubble, before flying back to Earth.
For scientists, the chance of obtaining chunks of a carbonaceous asteroid is exciting. “Bennu is a carbonaceous asteroid, an ancient relic from the early solar system that is filled with organic molecules,” Lauretta explained to the Times. “Asteroids like Bennu may have seeded the early Earth with this material, contributing to the primordial soup from which life emerged.”
For the rest of the world, Osiris-Rex’s most important task may be the measurements it makes of a newly discovered force called the Yarkovsky effect, that can send asteroids careening around the solar system and potentially toward Earth.
This force makes Bennu’s trajectory hard to predict, but scientists know its position has shifted 100 miles since 1999.
“We need to know everything about Bennu — its size, mass and composition,” said Lauretta. “This could be vital data for future generations.”
Filed under asteroids ,  nasa ,  science ,  space



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NASA, dunya'ya yaklasan bir uzay tasinin yorungesini degistirmek icin yardim istiyor.


digitaltrends.com

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http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/20sep_mysteryobject/


Gizemli 'goktasi" J002
dunya ile gunes arasinda gidip-geliyor


 Mystery Object Orbits Earth

Mystery Object Orbits Earth
A puzzling object just discovered in orbit around Earth might be an Apollo rocket on a fantastic journey through the solar system.

NASA

Link to story audio Listen to this story via streaming audio, a downloadable file, or get help.

see captionSept. 20, 2002: Something odd is circling our planet. It's small, perhaps only 60-ft long, and rotates once every minute or so. Amateur astronomer Bill Yeung first spotted the 16th magnitude speck of light on Sept. 3rd in the constellation Pisces. He named it J002E3.

Automated asteroid surveys scan the skies every few weeks, yet there was no sign of Yeung's object earlier this year. "It must have entered Earth orbit recently," says Paul Chodas of NASA's Near-Earth Object Program at JPL. "But it doesn't match any recently-launched spacecraft."

In other words, it's a mystery.

Above: Andrea Aletti of the Schiaparelli Astronomical Observatory captured this 10-minute exposure of J002E3 gliding among the stars of the constellation Taurus on Sept. 17th. J002E3 rotates or tumbles every minute or so, which causes the brightness variations shown in the picture. [more]

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Could it be an alien spaceship? "If it is," says Chodas, "the aliens aren't good pilots. J002E3 is in a chaotic orbit. It loops around Earth once every 48 days or so, coming as close to our planet as the Moon and ranging as far away as two lunar distances." There's no evidence that the speck is moving under its own power. The orbit is constantly changing because of gravitational perturbations by the Sun and Moon.

At first Yeung and others thought J002E3 might be a small asteroid--a reasonable guess. The object is as bright as a 30m-wide space rock and it's moving about as fast as an asteroid should move. Mars and Jupiter have captured asteroid moons before; perhaps Earth had done the same.

It was a good idea, except for the paint.

That's what University of Arizona astronomers found on Sept. 12th when they measured the spectrum of sunlight reflected from J002E3. "The colors were consistent with ... white titanium dioxide paint--the type of paint NASA used on Apollo moon rockets 30 years ago," says Carl Hergenrother, who conducted the study with colleague Robert Whiteley.

see captionLeft: Click on the image to view animations of J002E3's strange orbit. [more]

So, J002E3 might be a spacecraft after all--an old one from Earth. Where has it been all these years?

"Orbiting the Sun," answers Chodas. "I've traced the motion of J002E3 backwards in time to find out where it's been," he explains. Apparently, J002E3 left Earth in 1971, went around the Sun 30 or so times, and came back again. Chodas, a expert in planetary motion who has seen plenty of complicated orbits, says "I've never seen anything like this."

At first glance, J002E3 would seem to be from Apollo 14. That mission began in January of 1971, and according to Chodas' calculations J002E3 broke out of Earth orbit in March of the same year. There's a problem, though: NASA has accounted for all the big pieces of the Apollo 14 spacecraft. None are missing.

Chodas inventories the mission: On Jan. 31, 1971, a Saturn V rocket blasted off from Florida with Al Shepard, Ed Mitchell and Stuart Roosa inside. Two stages of the rocket fell back to Earth when they exhausted their fuel. A third stage, the S-IVB fuel tank and rocket engine, which propelled the crew from Earth-orbit toward the Moon, was likewise discarded. The S-IVB, however, did not fall back to Earth; it hit the Moon. Ground controllers guided it there on purpose to provide an impact for lunar seismic monitoring stations. The lunar module Antares was also deliberately crashed--more data for the seismic network. The command module Kitty Hawk returned the crew to Earth.

see captionJ002E3 couldn't be any of those things. "There is an outside chance that it might be one of the Spacecraft-Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) panels," adds Chodas, "although J002E3 appears to be too bright for one of those."

Right: The Apollo 12 Saturn V rocket awaits launch in 1969.

Another possibility is that J002E3 is an S-IVB from Apollo 12. Unlike Apollo 14, Apollo 12's S-IVB did not crash into the Moon. The crew jettisoned it on Nov. 15, 1969, when it was nearly out of fuel. Once the astronauts were safely away, ground controllers ignited the S-IVB's engine. They meant to send the 60-ft-long tank into a Sun-centered orbit, but something went wrong; the burn lasted too long. Instead of circling the Sun, the S-IVB entered a barely-stable orbit around the Earth and Moon "much like the current orbit of J002E3," notes Chodas.

Eventually, the Apollo 12 S-IVB vanished--no one knows when. Perhaps gravitational tugs from the Sun and Moon accumulated until they nudged the engine away from Earth in 1971. In this scenario, it would have circled the Sun for 31 years until it was re-captured by Earth's gravity in 2002.

"It's plausible," says Chodas, "but still speculative."

Whatever J002E3 is, it's taking a fantastic journey through the solar system--and it's not done yet. Chodas' calculations indicate that J002E3 will leave Earth again in June 2003 to resume its orbit around the Sun. "Thirty years from now," he notes, "it might come back again."

Below: Attached to the Saturn IV-B stage, the Lunar Module Adapter's four panels are retracted to the fully open position. This picture was taken during the Apollo 7 mission. [more]

see captionIf it does, perhaps it will be greeted by human explorers on regular "milk runs" between the Earth and Moon. They might detour briefly and discover, once and for all, what J002E3 really is: a historical attraction, maybe, or something wholly unexpected....

For now the best we can do is watch J002E3 from afar--an unresolved speck of light easily detected by 8" to 10" telescopes with CCD cameras. This week J002E3 is gliding through the constellation Taurus. Where will it go next? Find out by visiting JPL's Near-Earth Object Program web site, which offers a helpful ephemeris for observers. J002E3 won't be here long, so catch it while you can!

Editor's note #2: Could the Hubble Space Telescope take a picture of J002E3 and see what it is? No. With its 2.4 meter diameter mirror, the smallest object that the Hubble can resolve at the Moon's distance is about 80 meters across. J002E3 is no larger than about 30 meters if it is an asteroid or 20 meters if it is an S-IVB--too small for Hubble.

Editor's note #1: Earlier this week, Chodas noted that J002E3 might hit the Moon in 2003. The odds he estimated were 20%--a figure which was widely reported. The odds have since declined. His latest calculations indicate that J002E3 has less than a 1% chance of hitting the Moon before June 2003, and no chance of hitting Earth. Even if J002E3 did hit Earth, notes Chodas, it wouldn't reach our planet's surface. "The object would completely disintegrate in the atmosphere as a beautiful fireball." Regarding the possibility of a lunar impact, University of Arizona professor Jay Melosh explains that J002E3 is not traveling fast enough to create a bright fireball if it hits the lunar surface. "More likely," he says, "the impact would produce a glowing infra-red cloud like the one astronomers observed when the Japanese Hiten spacecraft hit the Moon in 1993."
more information

NASA Near-Earth Objects Program -- (JPL) up-to-date information about near-Earth Objects including asteroids, comets, and misfits like J002E3.

J002E3 photo gallery -- from spaceweather.com

How does J002E3 jump back and forth between a Sun-centered orbit and an Earth-centered orbit? "It moves through the L1-point," explains Chodas. Also known as "the 1st Lagrangian point," the L1 point is a location in space 1.5 million km closer to the Sun than Earth. Objects placed there in a circular orbit will move around the Sun in exactly one year--always directly between our planet and the Sun. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, for example, is a spacecraft that lives at the L1 point. It enjoys a continuous view of the Sun, 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. Objects closer to Earth than the L1 point are controlled by Earth's gravity. Objects beyond the L1 point are controlled by the Sun. "When J002E3 came close to the L1 point in April 2002, the object passed throuhgh L1--like a portal--from a Sun-orbit to an Earth-orbit. At some time in the future it might leave Earth-orbit in the same way, back out through the L1 point."

UA Astronomers Discover That Earth's Second Moon Wears Apollo Paint -- University ofona press release

Apollo links: Apollo12 (NSSDC); Apollo 14 (NSSDC); Apollo seismic experiments (JSC); Apollo lunar impact sites (NSSDC); more impact sites (NASA History Office); describes the extra-long burn of Apollo 12's S-IVB (NASA History Office); describes an S-IVB lunar impact (NASA History Office); a great Apollo web site (NASA History Office); physical characteristics of an S-IVB stage (apollosaturn.com, external site)


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http://www.space.com/33891-newfound-asteroid-buzzes-earth-2016-qa2.html

iki gun oncesine kadar bilinmeyen bir goktasi
dunya yakinindan gecti
(kisa goruntuleri gormek icin
yukaridaki bulunumu tiklayin)


A Newfound Asteroid Just Buzzed Harmlessly By Earth
By Mike Wall, Space.com Senior Writer | August 30, 2016 07:00am ET

   
An asteroid gave Earth a close shave Sunday (Aug. 28), just a day after astronomers first spotted the object.

The newfound asteroid 2016 QA2 zoomed within 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers) or so of the planet Sunday. For perspective, the moon orbits Earth at an average distance of 239,000 miles (384,600 km).

Astronomers think 2016 QA2 is between 80 and 180 feet (25 to 55 meters) wide. That means the space rock is slightly bigger than the object that exploded over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk in February 2013, injuring more than 1,200 people.

The Chelyabinsk asteroid was probably 65 feet (20 m) or so in diameter when it hit Earth's atmosphere, scientists have said. (The Chelyabinsk object exploded high above the ground, generating a powerful shock wave that shattered thousands of windows. The injuries — none of which were fatal — were cuts caused by flying glass.)

The SONEAR Observatory in Brazil discovered 2016 QA2 on Saturday (Aug. 27). The asteroid has a more elliptical orbit than Earth does, coming as close to the sun as 0.76 astronomical units (AU) and getting as far away as 1.18 AU, according to the Minor Planet Center. (One AU is the average distance form Earth to the sun: about 93 million miles, or 150 million km.)

The newfound asteroid completes one lap around the sun every 350 days, researchers said.
Asteroid Basics: A Space Rock Quiz
Asteroids are fascinating for lots of reasons. They contain a variety of valuable resources and slam into our planet on a regular basis, occasionally snuffing out most of Earth's lifeforms. How much do you know about space rocks?
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Asteroids in 2016 QA2's size range could conceivably do serious damage on a local scale if they hit Earth. In 1908, for example, an object thought to be about 130 feet (40 m) wide exploded over Siberia, flattening trees over an 825-square-mile area (2,137 square km). (It may seem like asteroids really have it in for Russia, but the nation's higher incidence of strikes is just a result of its huge size.)

But an asteroid has to be really big — probably at least 0.6 miles (1 km) wide — to potentially wipe out human civilization or cause some other global catastrophe, astronomers have said. Scientists think they've spotted about 95 percent of the potentially hazardous, mountain-size space rocks out there, and none of those objects pose a threat for the foreseeable future.


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dunya yakinindan gecen uzaytasi
dunya'ya varmadan
ancak iki gun once bulundu.
Hem de dunya'nin ay'a olan uzakliginin on'da biri uzaklikta.



Astronomers spot asteroid just two days before it comes within 25K miles of Earth
Dyllan Furness,Digital Trends Fri, Sep 9 10:03 AM PDT

An asteroid buzzed by Earth on Wednesday, coming within 25,000 miles of our planet. That may not sound like a close call but — given the massive scale of the universe — it is. In a press release, NASA points out that the asteroid’s distance to Earth was 1/10th the distance of the Earth to the moon.

As asteroid 2016 RB1 passed under the Earth’s south pole, it didn’t disrupt communication or weather satellites, which orbit Earth a little over 22,000 miles away. If it weren’t for careful inspection from a team of astronomers at the Catalina Sky Survey, we may not have even noticed it.

Related: NASA preps for seven-year journey to sample a near-Earth asteroid

The asteroid, 2016 RB1, was discovered on Monday by astronomers using the 60-inch Cassegrain reflector telescope positioned at the top of Mount Lemmon in the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, Arizona. At 25 to 50 feet in diameter, 2016 RB1 is a fraction of the size of the largest asteroid to pass near Earth this year, 2016 FN56, which has a diameter between 115 and 280 feet.

NASA keeps a tally of all known asteroids as a part of its Near-Earth Object Program, which let’s scientists and members of the public track these space rocks. We’ll be visited by 2016 RB1 again but it won’t come as close to Earth as it did Wednesday for at least another 50 years, according to NASA.

Many scientists have a special interest in asteroids as ancient objects that offer insight into the formation of our solar system.

On Thursday night, NASA commenced a 7-year mission by launching OSIRIS-REx, a probe that will travel to a near-Earth asteroid named Bennu, where it will suck up dust samples and return them to Earth for observations. The agency is also working on the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will see a spacecraft rendezvous with an asteroid, collect a boulder, and attempt to gently deflect the asteroid’s trajectory before returning to Earth. This maneuver, called a planetary defense demonstration, may one day help knock an inbound asteroid off its path toward Earth.


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http://www.theverge.com/2016/9/30/13119534/rosetta-probe-watch-live-crash-landing?yptr=yahoo

Rosetta arastiricisi
yol'a ciktiktan oniki yil sonra
goktasi 67P ye
yumusak inis yapti


Watch live as the Rosetta probe 'softly’ crashes into comet 67P
4 comments
The 12-year mission is coming to an end this morning
by James Vincent @jjvincent Sep 30, 2016, 5:04a

 
The ticker at the top of the European Space Agency's live stream says it all. Days at comet: 786; days until end of mission: 0. After launching from Earth back in March 2004, the Rosetta space probe is preparing for its final mission — a controlled landing onto the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, where it's been in orbit for the last two years. Confirmation from Rosetta of the landing is expected to happen at approximately 11:18AM Universal Time or 7.18AM ET, and you can watch along with the ESA's live stream.

If you're tuning in at the time of publication article (4:30AM ET) then don't expect to see more than a quiet control room. But as we get closer to impact, Rosetta will be sending more images back to Earth, charting its own final plunge with good, scientific rigor. This will be a relatively soft landing, with Rosetta hitting the surface at a leisurely pace of around 2mph, but it'll be enough to render the craft inoperative.

    Closer & closer: enjoying beautiful contrasts in surface textures of #67P. This from 8.9km at 0653UT: #CometLanding https://t.co/h2vSxtIev7 pic.twitter.com/cIJz6msgH9
    — ESA Rosetta Mission (@ESA_Rosetta) September 30, 2016

The landing is optional too. "We could have abandoned it in space or let it bounce off the comet and just switched it off. It wouldn’t have created any problem," Andrea Accomazzo, Rosetta flight operations director, told The Guardian. "Landing it is more a psychological thing." Rosetta is expected to transmit a last image of the comet's surface from a height of around 15 meters. After this, scientists will turn off its radio transmitters and the probe will be gone for good.

Rosetta's scientific legacy, though, is already secured. Scientists have used information collected by the probe to confirm that comets like 67P are the frozen remains of the material used to build planets. And while measurements of 67P's very weird water vapor suggest that that theory that comets seeded planets with water is false, the discovery of numerous organic compounds and chemicals by Rosetta suggest that it's possible that comets sparked life on Earth, crashing into the primordial soup.
Next Up In Science

    Rosetta spacecraft lands on comet 67P and switches off for good
    When is a crash landing not a crash landing?
    Blue Origin will test its spacecraft’s in-flight escape system on October 4th
    Measles are gone from the Americas
    First Click: The hidden dangers of life on Mars
    The UN plans to launch its first space mission five years from now


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NASA'nin yeni goktasi izleyici yazilimi bir deneyinden basari ile gecti.
Bu kucuk gokasi,'nin gozlemcilerin gozunden kacmasini onledi.

Scout, NASA’s new asteroid-tracking system, just passed an important test

Dyllan Furness, Digital Trends 9 hours ago

 

An asteroid passed by Earth last night but, thanks to a new asteroid-spotting system, it didn’t catch astronomers off guard. The space rock was discovered a few days ago by NASA’s new computer program, Scout, which sifted through telescope data to identify the Near Earth Object and run a quick calculation to determine that it would pass at a safe distance of 310,000 miles from the planet.

“The NASA surveys are finding something like at least five asteroids every night,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) astronomer Paul Chodas told NPR.

“When a telescope first finds a moving object, all you know is it’s just a dot, moving on the sky,” he added. “You have no information about how far away it is. “The more telescopes you get pointed at an object, the more data you get, and the more you’re sure you are how big it is and which way it’s headed. But sometimes you don’t have a lot of time to make those observations.”

Scout is still in its testing phase but, by analyzing data from the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System in Hawaii, it was able to identify the asteroid on the night of October 25-26, according to NPR. Scout’s analysis determined that the asteroid would pass safely by Earth. Three more telescopes confirmed the finding.

Related: Astronomers spot asteroid just two days before it comes within 25K miles of Earth

Although Scout is primarily focused on locating small objects — last night’s asteroid was somewhere between 5 meters and 25 meters in diameter — it’s older relative, Sentry, is tasked with identifying asteroids that pose more serious threats to Earth, like the potential to destroy entire cities. Chodas told NPR Sentry has probably identified 25-30 percent of asteroids over 140 meters wide, with a goal of identifying 90 percent. They’re a while off from that goal, but that hunt may be a bit easier when the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope in Chile comes online in the early 2020s.

    Watch live: NASA hosts virtual tour and Q&A for its asteroid capture mission
    Astronomers spot asteroid just two days before it comes within 25K miles of Earth
    ‘Can I borrow your pickup?’ NASA needs help moving an asteroid


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Amerikan Uzay Kurumu ile Avrupa Uzay Kurumu
ortaklasa
Dunya'ya carpamasi yuksek olasiliktaki
uzay tasinin yorungesini degistirmek icin
calisabilir

http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2016/1116/Why-more-than-100-scientists-are-backing-an-asteroid-deflection-mission?cmpid=ema:nws:Daily%2520Newsletter%2520%2811-17-2016%29&utm_source=Sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=20161117_Newsletter:%20Daily&utm_term=Daily


 Why more than 100 scientists are backing an asteroid-deflection mission
csmonitor icon


Scientists have have voiced their support for a 2020 mission to do a test deflection of an asteroid to prepare for the possibility of a future collision with Earth.
By Weston Williams, Staff November 16, 2016
 
How do you stop an asteroid headed directly at Earth?

That's the question that scientists have been asking for decades now. For most of human history, the only answer to such a question would be a shrug. But as asteroid detection continues to improve, scientists say they might be able to have enough time between spotting an incoming meteor and its impact to actually keep it from hitting our planet.

While scientists believe that asteroids like the kind that wiped out the dinosaurs are rare, smaller asteroids can still cause massive damage all over the world. In order to prevent these destructive collisions, more than 100 scientists published a letter in support of a joint NASA/ESA mission, set to launch in 2020, to study and ultimately deflect an asteroid. The mission would enable humanity to learn more about the threat posed by near-Earth objects and would mark the first time an asteroid has been deflected away from Earth in a dry run for planetary defense against near-Earth objects on a more destructive course.
Recommended: Could you pass Astronomy 101? Take the quiz!

"Of the near-Earth objects (NEOs) so far discovered, there are more than 1700 asteroids currently considered hazardous. Unlike other natural disasters, this is one we know how to predict and potentially prevent with early discovery," reads the letter. "As such, it is crucial to our knowledge and understanding of asteroids to determine whether a kinetic impactor is able to deflect the orbit of such a small body, in case Earth is threatened."
Test your knowledge Could you pass Astronomy 101? Take the quiz!
Photos of the Day Photos of the Day 11/17

The letter, which can be signed by any concerned Earthling, describes the proposed 2-part AIDA mission to the binary asteroid system, Didymos and Didymoon. The first probe, ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM), will study the asteroids from orbit when it arrives in 2022. It will then be able to watch NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) as it collides with Didymoon about four months later, knocking it off course in a demonstration of technology that may one day save lives.

"We are really optimistic, because it is a very unique opportunity," Cornelius Schalinski, deputy head of business development for OHB, the German private space company charged with leading the implementation of AIM, told Space.com. "It has to go in 2020. Otherwise, the opportunity is lost. It is an asteroid that gets pretty close to Earth, so we can, with comparatively small cost and effort, test technologies that we need for future missions that are further away."

The timing of the AIDA mission is crucial, which is why the letter is important. In early December, ESA's council of ministers will meet to determine whether or not to provide funding for the mission.

Scientists have been abstractly concerned with the problem of an asteroid impact for over a century. But recently, that problem has become much more concrete, as the Christian Science Monitor's Joseph Dussault recently explained:

    On the morning of June 30, 1908, a large meteor exploded in mid-air near Russia’s Stony Tunguska River. No casualties were reported, as the area was sparsely populated, but the so-called Tunguska event flattened nearly 800 square miles of forest. New York City, by comparison, is just over 300 square miles.

    In 2013, a significantly smaller meteor – just 65 feet wide, compared to the 200-650 foot estimate of the Tunguska object – burst over Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. The blast was around 30 times more powerful than the atomic bomb detonated at Hiroshima, and injured 1,500 people.

    The  Chelyabinsk meteor was a wake-up call for the world’s space agencies. Several had already initiated a number of “spaceguard” missions in the 1980s and 1990s, designed to track the orbits of near-Earth objects (NEOs) which might enter the atmosphere. In 1992, NASA even sponsored an “asteroid interception workshop” in New Mexico.

As scientists continue to discover more and more near-Earth objects, some of which could pose a threat to populations on Earth, the upcoming AIDA mission has the potential of acting as a safety net for human beings in the line of fire. But the mission would also have great scientific value as well, giving us important insights into the early history of planet formation in our own cosmic neighborhood.

"Asteroids are marvels of planetary systems, in particular our Solar System," the scientists point out in the AIDA letter. "Like comets, they are left over matter from the formation of planets, rich in minerals and rich in scientific knowledge of the early history of our Solar System."
Asteroid Flies By Earth
WTVY - Dothan, AL


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Daha önce hiç bilinmeyen bir göktaşı Dünya ile ay arasından saniye'de 16 km hız ile geçti.



An asteroid just flew by Earth about 50% closer than the moon, and we barely saw it coming
Dave Mosher,Business Insider 9 January 2017


near earth object asteroids neos nasa m15 091b(An illustration of a near-Earth object, or NEO, passing near Earth.NASA)

Early Monday morning, while the US East Coast was making coffee, dropping kids off at school, and cursing in traffic, a space rock as big as a 10-story building slipped past Earth.

The asteroid, dubbed 2017 AG13, was discovered only Saturday by the University of Arizona's Catalina Sky Survey, according to an email from Slooh, a company that broadcasts live views of space.

It's between 50 and 111 feet (15 to 34 meters) long, and when it swung by Earth, 2017 AG3 was moving at 9.9 miles per second (16 kilometers per second). The near-Earth object, or NEO, came within about half the distance that the moon is from Earth, according to Slooh.

"This is moving very quickly, very nearby to us," Eric Feldman, an astronomer with Slooh, said during a live broadcast of the flyby at 7:47 a.m. ET on January 9. "It actually crosses the orbits of two planets, Venus and Earth."
A near miss

russian meteor chelyabinsk trail(Trail of the asteroid that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia, on February 15, 2013.Flickr/Alex Alishevskikh)

What would have happened if the asteroid had plowed into our atmosphere?

According to an asteroid-impact simulator called "Impact Earth!" by Purdue University, it might not have been as bad as it might sound.

Had a porous rock asteroid of 111 feet (34 meters) long hit Earth at a 45-degree angle, the simulator found, it would have exploded as an air burst. The blast would have released about 700 kilotons' worth of energy — dozens of times more powerful than the atomic bomb detonated over Hiroshima.

But since it would have occurred from a distance of about 10 miles high, it probably wouldn't have had much effect on the ground; if anything, a high-altitude boom may have sounded as loud as heavy traffic on the ground.

mars whole planet globe map space nasa(Courtesy Slooh)

Such strikes occur about once every 150 years, according to Purdue.

However, according to Slooh, 2017 AG3 was "roughly the same size as the asteroid that struck Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013," so the on-the-ground effects — including shattered windows and slightly damaged buildings — may have been similar.

"It is not that uncommon of an event, which is one of the reasons it is interesting," Mark Sykes, director and CEO of the Planetary Science Institute, told Business Insider in an email.

In fact, about 38 more "close approaches" like asteroid 2017 AG3's are expected in January alone, according to NASA's Near Earth Object Program.
Hunting for NEOs

neocam asteroid hunter spacecraft discovery nasa jpl caltech(An artist's concept of the NEOCam asteroid-hunting mission.NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Sykes is one of the scientists behind a proposed asteroid-hunting space telescope called the Near-Earth Objects Camera, or NEOCam.

"NEOCam would detect some of these small asteroids, but because they are small they would have to be closer to be seen," Sykes said.

The NEOCam telescope is designed to detect larger (yet still relatively small) space rocks of roughly 460 feet (140 meters) greater. If launched, a 10-year-long mission is expected discover 10 times the known NEOs of that size, or bigger, compared to any previous survey of the sky.

Such objects pose a dire risk to humanity since they can release many times the energy of a thermonuclear bomb if they strike our planet — and yet we're mostly blind to them as Earth drifts through a shooting gallery.

Yet last week, NASA chose for the second time not to fully fund NEOCam with $450 million.

The space agency instead chose two other missions for future launch: Lucy, which will explore swarms of asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, and Psyche, which will fly out to and investigate the giant metallic core of a dead proto-planet.

While NASA does intend to give NEOCam partial funding for another year, the space agency couldn't tell Business Insider how much or under what conditions, nor what its long-term plans are for the mission.

So for now, NEOCam's future — and our ability to find these unseen threats — remains uncertain.

https://www.yahoo.com/finance/news/asteroid-just-flew-earth-two-172000181.html

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 ScienceBusiness Insider
An asteroid is about to slip between Earth and the moon — the second near miss in 3 weeks
Dave Mosher,Business Insider Tue, Jan 24 11:47 AM PST


Less than 3 weeks ago, while America was getting the kids to school and arriving at work, an asteroid the size of a building slipped past Earth from a distance about halfway to the moon.

Now a similar space rock is about to zoom by our helpless planet.

The new near-Earth object (NEO), dubbed asteroid 2017 BX, was only discovered a few days ago, on Friday, January 20. It's slated to swing by Tuesday night at 11:54 p.m. ET at a distance of about 162,000 miles (261,000 kilometers) — roughly two-thirds the way to the moon.

We first heard about it via an email from Slooh, a company that airs live views of space, and they're hosting a broadcast about 2017 BX — which they've nicknamed "Rerun" — starting at 5:30 p.m. ET on Tuesday.

Asteroid 2017 BX, according to Slooh and data from NASA JPL, is similar to asteroid 2017 AG13, which flew by Earth on Monday, January 9. But this new asteroid is much smaller, at roughly 13 to 46 feet (4 to 14 meters) across — between the size of a car and a bus — and is moving at half the speed, approximately 16,600 miles (26,700 kilometers) per hour.

This is too small and too slow-moving of a rogue space rock to pose any real harm to Earth.

If its path had targeted our planet, and if it had been a loose pile of rocks (as most asteroids are) and not a metallic asteroid, it would break apart and burn up thousands of feet in the air, according to an asteroid-impact simulator called "Impact Earth!" by Purdue University.

asteroid 2017 bx jan 24 slooh(An illustration showing the not-to-scale flyby distance of asteroid 2017 BX.Slooh)

However, the last-minute detection of 2017 BX is just another example of how blind we are to the millions of NEOs that could smack into our planet and release many atomic bombs' worth of energy.

NASA recently had the opportunity to fund a space telescope called NEOCam that'd help find 90% of NEOs of a size that's hard to detect yet could pose serious threats to human civilization. However, it balked for reasons that have yet to be made public, choosing two other missions (and ones to asteroids, no less).



Depending on where you live, pause for a moment tonight — Tuesday, January 24 at 11:54 p.m. ET — and imagine a rock the size of a truck flying overhead at 4.6 miles (7.4 kilometers) per second.

Then imagine 300,000 much-larger rocks out there that are big enough and moving fast enough to wipe out a major city.

Sleep tight.


 

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Ynt: Humans on Mars (full text attached) Gönderen: PLMPLM
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BAKIŞ/GÖRÜŞ/GÖRÜNÜŞ (IX) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
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[Kasım 22, 2016, 08:20:18 ÖS]


BAKIŞ /GÖRÜŞ ve GÖRÜNÜŞ (II) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
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BAKIŞ /GÖRÜŞ ve GÖRÜNÜŞ Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
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Maneviyat Kütüphanesi-KATALOG Gönderen: agulle
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[Kasım 18, 2016, 11:10:43 ÖS]


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[Kasım 18, 2016, 02:04:42 ÖÖ]


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