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Philosophy in the Turk lands
« : Ocak 13, 2016, 12:44:17 ÖÖ »
Philosophy in the Turk lands
 
HB Paksoy, DPhil

Published in:
Central Eurasia in the Middle Ages. Studies in Honour of Peter B. Golden,
ed. István Zimonyi & Osman Karatay, 
Harrassowitz Verlag (Wiesbaden, 2016).

Almost all institutions talk about 'vision.'  All proudly display a sentence or two on this 'vision' in their premises.  It is possible to discover in the lobby of a swimming pool construction company: "Our philosophy is to have children splash happily in each one of our pools."  One wonders if the swimming pool company intends to supply the children, too.  Similarly, one can find a dentist who wrote a vision which he intends his future patients to read.  Large multinationals reduce their vision to less than five words and let the whole world know. 
 
Some academics talk and write seriously about 'theory.'   If one is not aware the meaning loaded on that word in that context, one is inclined to ask 'of what?'  When one realizes the word philosophy is thus replaced, one may wish to refrain from making further comments.  But, is any of the foregoing a true definition of 'proper' philosophy? 
 
First, there was philosophy.  Then, disciplines began forming and proceeded to leave the bosom of their mother.  Despite (or because of) that origin, the highest degree of university learning is termed Doctor of Philosophy, practically in any subject.  As the off-spring disciplines kept taking the field away from philosophy, individual members of populations kept asserting the guiding lights of their lives in proverbs, didactic stories, manuals of statecraft, jokes and other literature and the arts.  Therefore, it is possible to derive a whole of the philosophy of a polity from such a widely dispersed record.  Can this mean, bringing knowledge back together, instead of examining it in piecemeal?
 
Accordingly, not all culture may be found in museums, concert halls or restaurants.  There are repositories of "mind contents" such as the manuscripts or books which are cared by libraries.  This act of saving of the past experiences for the benefit of the future is a fact of life.  Even the fishermen and hunters make notes of their most productive areas.  In a similar manner, politicians are fond of visiting the regions that elected them. 
Sakla samani, gelir zamani
 
There are commonalities among people who live in diverse geographical and cultural zones.  Food, shelter, clothing are the needs of all individuals regardless where they live.  Depending on the geographic conditions, in meeting the necessities, the means as well as the results will vary.  Whether a polity eats beans, cows or crocodiles, all members have to satisfy the requirements of protein intake.  That eventually makes a difference in the health of the society.  And those differences are reflected in the respective philosophies of polities.
 
Another factor is, how many hours a person must work a day to procure daily food.  Interestingly enough, that factor deeply influences the overall philosophy.  Having surplus food was used in defense of keeping slaves; having surplus food was credited in the formation of philosophical inquiries.  Thereby, keeping slaves or peasants in villages became de rigueur philosophy in Europe.
 
Understanding a polity's philosophy helps an observer better understand the nature of that society.  That understanding may even help us correctly predict the future behavior of that polity.  Psychiatrists and psychologists have been working, since Second World War, to develop formulas for the purpose of predicting the future behavior of societies.   The entire practice started with a 'profile' of Adolph Hitler, which effort was declared to be successful.  In the case of the emergence of Adolph Hitler, what was the state of German philosophy?  That question is interesting to answer, since there were wide-scale philosophical contacts between Scotland, Germany, France and England. 
 
We must also not forget the place of mythical characters and events in the formation of philosophy in various nations.  Gotterdammerung, set to music by Wagner, said to have been influential in the formation of modern German mind, contains personae and events of the mythical type.  The Alpamysh epic in Central Asia, originally contained no mythical elements.  It was composed and set to music as straight history, celebrating the defeat of an enemy who dared to invade the composer's homeland.  Since there are dozens of versions of Alpamysh, an effort was expended to reach the original elements.  And by timeline record, the Alpamysh epic became the carrier of other ideas and myths, heaped on such a successful transmitter down the line.
 
At this point, we might touch upon the matter of direction.  When philosophers began constructing their ideology or their own version of truth, they often have a direction; they know which shore they wish to reach and drop anchor.  For example, Thomas Hobbes had no qualms about his direction.[ii]  Therein hides a second, equally more important problem:  how will the future generations make use of a given philosophy?  Will they use the precepts contained for a freer society, or just the opposite?  Will the society progress or regress, just because a small group of individuals interpreted a philosophical concept according to the exigencies of the moment or their own taste?  Naturally, if the members of a polity are well educated and possess knowledge of the origins of the said philosophy, can challenge and win over narrower points of view.
 
There was a historical period when the governed masses yearned for a philosopher king.  By experience, the masses knew that the philosopher aspect of a king would soften the harshness of the straight king.  That specific combination even led some sages of the time to comment that religion was nothing more than a watered-down version of philosophy for the uneducated masses.[iii]  Accordingly, for some polities, it is religion, the belief system, that makes life worth living.  The 'attractiveness' of life after death is a powerful incentive.  For others, the desire to own the world and spend it to their liking, is the preference.  If the control of the all available wealth is the governing philosophy, other, cover philosophies may be put into play so as to conceal the ultimate goal.  Religion is one unfailing path used to reach that goal. 
 
Since the time of organized religions coming into age, with their user's manuals, there has been a tension between belief systems and secularism, however they manifest.  That tension is very much in evidence today; not only between a single country, but also between religions in an intercontinental fashion.  And that tension may even be taken to other celestial bodies with the traveling humans that is, if measures are not taken to prevent strife.[iv] 
 
At times, the philosophy of a polity may be covered over with the philosophy of another polity.  This happens with military occupation, or cultural resilience.  There are many examples of a victorious army eventually losing superiority, because the people they conquered, won over the conquering army with the strength of their cultural values.  However, at other times, there may be a mélange of  philosophies as a result.  Some Central Asian states are now living in the throes of triple or quadruple philosophical mélanges.
 
Speculative Masonry[v] contains the philosophy of self betterment.  Attracted by that premise, the newly inducted members have fallen into the euphoric state of applying that idea more broadly, and into their homelands.  The end result was and still is broadly discernible.  Revolutions of various types were staged, governance models traded and changed.  Then the question arises: was it Masonry staging those coup-de-Etat, or the newly inducted members misunderstanding the premise of Masonry?  Better yet, were those newly inducted were hoodwinked by other members who stood to gain by a change of government?[vi]
 
Traditions are meant to keep a polity on a true and tried method, to allow them a living space, based on the experiences of the old.  Traditions are coined by a polity, and accepted by their governance strata, for the health and happiness of all belonging.  Without followers or subjects, it is no use being a governor.  A method of taking away the wealth of a polity is turning the traditions into superstitions.  If, for example, making springtime kites from locally available fibers was the tradition (a favorite activity in the Springtime), beginning a rumor that kites made in a foreign country where the ancestors used to live in the past is more auspicious, may just start such a superstition. In the end, the kite making from local fibers dies and the monetary expenditures transfers the wealth of the polity to another country.  What was intended as a happy occasion is thus transformed into a benefit of a foreign power.     
 
The traditional belief system in the Central Asian bozkir[vii] was Tengri.[viii]  Then, the itinerant mendicant dervishes appeared in the bozkir to convert the Tengri believers into Islam.  This was perhaps the sixth set of proselytizers, seeking to convert the Tengri believers into different religions.  In the bozkir, both water and food are scarce.  Thus, the Islamic mendicant dervishes were completely dependent on their hosts for their own sustenance; and in the bozkir, the 'guests' are looked after politely.  After a short pause, the mendicant dervishes found themselves injecting Tengri precepts into their Islamic messages.  Accordingly, the Islamic Allah became Tengri; the prophet became yalavac (he who beseeches God); praying was yakaris (overtones of complaining).  In every case, the Tengri version was rather different than the Islamic variety of the Tengri terms.  Later on, the Islamic kadi (religious) courts had to deal with all types of local traditions of Tengri , and the kadi-judges had to write them down in the famed kadi registers.  Hence,  the Islam became highly localized.  One may guess the tantrum reaction of the North African traveler Ibn-Battuta, who was always in horror of the variety in Islam.  Battuta insisted that he knew the truth.
 
Islam gained some foothold in the cities nevertheless.  In fact, the oases also became a home to the Islamic madrasah schools which were swiftly politicized.  That not only resulted in the training of some famous scholars, but also produced equally famous religious fanatics who would not shy away from killing rulers when felt betrayed.  That was another outcome: some city-dwelling rulers had their guests assassinated in their sleep.   That was done so the beloved guest would immediately journey to heaven, without delay.  All this may have altered the global political and historical landscape in ways that will not be possible know at present.
 
One of the advantages of the Tengri belief system is that the religion does not have a "user's manual."  In that manner, the opponents of Tengri philosophy cannot study such a manual and look for openings to inject their counter positions in order to recruit the Tengri believers into their peculiar flavored religion.  On the other hand, some enterprising individuals made their effort, by using the fact that since there is no hard and fast user's manual, they could 'invent' additional precepts, based on the observed characteristics of the Tengri believers.  There are two prominent such attempts.  Pan-Turanism and 'Kizil Elma' (Golden Apple). 
 
'Kizil Elma' (Golden Apple) was never described, nor became the subject of any treatise. The term itself was usually employed with alacrity, "let us go to the Golden Apple."  Except, nobody knew where or what that Golden Apple was.  Perhaps it was created much like the Pan-Turanism[ix] variety, for the sole benefit of outsiders.  Hence, the efforts to insert the idea of a Golden Apple into Islam failed.
 
It is difficult to adequately proselytize a belief system without symbols, music, food and a user's manual.   In the case of  Tengri, all exist except for the user's manual.  However, filigree symbols, music, food, do not have a label signifying them as companions of Tengri.  What further compounds the difficulty in identification is that Shamanism and Tengri have not been specifically viewed independently.  Meaning, elements of Shamanism such as the Shaman's drum is a good symbol for Shamanism, but not involved in Tengrism.   Tengri is the earliest form of monotheism, whereas the Shamans converse with below-ground gods or spirits.  As such, Shamans are the messengers.  Tengri does not need an intermediary between himself and the population. and is accessible directly by all adherents be they a single person or an entire polity. 
 
Both Tengri and Shamanism have poetry set to music.  In the case of Tengri, the singing is generally accompanied by kumiss[
  • ]drinking.  Tengri is the reason humans exist and he is the protector of all life.  When the Central Asians practiced for war, they went on an extensive hunting expedition covering a vast territory.  The objective was to flush-out all venatio into an enormous circle around which would stand all available troops, on horseback, standing shoulder-to-shoulder.  Just before the killing started, the scholars in the court of the ruler would intercede, on foot, on behalf of the animals, directly to the ruler.  The scholars asked the ruler to save the  healthiest and biggest animals from all species to live and multiply.  That was so that the future generations of humans would also have a chance to exercise hunting. 

 
In Central Asia, polluting water was the cause of immediate death for any human offender.  In an environment where water is precious and scarce, this outcome need not be a cause for amazement.  All this attention to the resources remain renewable and 'green' points one to observe that Tengri is the original environmentalist belief system.  In fact, even after the adherents of Tengri  came into contact with the proselytizers of other religions, some of the 'green' Tengri concepts were incorporated into the newcomer religion.  Some of the 'sins' found in neighboring religions attest to that.  In due course, some of those proselytizers forgot about the religion they were attempting to spread and became adherents of Tengri. 
 
A philosophy emerges from the life-time of a polity which it adheres.  It is an interactive process.  If the basic philosophy is an outright expansionism (as in imperialism), as opposed to moving due to physical pressure from the neighbors,  then the written, painted and musical characteristics of that expansionism will be on exhibit.  That exhibition will in return will fuel more expansionism.  Life in Central Asia, and consequently philosophy, is geared toward survival.  If the polity cannot survive  as a unity, then the philosohy has failed.  The central Asian approach to ensuring the success of the survival philosophy and life in general may be described thus:
uruk > oymak > aris > soy > tire > ara
From right to left, this formula is read, to indicate expanding levels of a family.  Thus, we observe that a pyramidal structure constitutes the bases of the broad community in Central Asia. It has a defined set of steps. An uruk is comprised of oymak, which are made up of aris, a composition of soy, itself a subdivided into tire, constituted by ara.   In times of political strain, when war clouds are visible, various uruk form coalitions and establish the ultimate political and economic union: the confederation. The Central Asians termed this process "tug baglamak."
 
Tug is the horse-tail standard. The leader of a polity or unit had the traditional right to tie a tug to his lance. (As the tug would be more visible than a naked lance, this tug was used to identify the polity and, when needed, to signal the cavalry, to order various attacking, flanking, retreat and regrouping signals).
 
When the leader in question attracted more of his kinsmen to his standard, he would be in a position to add additional tug to his own lance. This was necessary because he now had more divisions to command, each with a designated lieutenant, called tugbay. For example, in the very late 15th and very early 16th centuries, the Ozbeks and the Kazaks formed their confederations in this time-honored fashion. In the 14th century, Timur was another example. Their population comprised primarily of urug, oymak, aris and so on, that arrived from the Nogay confederation that was dissolving. This was the mechanics by which the Central Asians established their polities, which we might now call states, complete with their geographic domains and governance structures.
 
The name adopted as the appellation of the confederation is chosen carefully, as it determines the character of the polity. For example, Ozbeks named themselves after Ozbek Han. This took place after an earlier confederation was dissolved, and the components of that earlier confederation chose to join others to form a brand-new confederation. [xi] Z. V. Togan, in his "Origins of the Ozbeks and the Kazaks" summarizes the process involved[xii]
 
All this has been portrayed Tengri as a religion of men.  Those who wanted to see Tengri as belonging only to men may have received their inspiration from another belief system.  Tengri is celebrated not only coeducationally, but as entire families and kinship structures.  As the dastan Dede Korkut asserts, competition between men and women, in archery, horseback riding, single combat wrestling was still conducted every year in the high pastures in Central Asia. 
 
The English, French, Germans tend to copy each other, and compete energetically; or so it seems oftentimes.  A closer look may suggest, as soon as one of those nations 'invents' an idea, the other two will 'create' the same or similar idea under their own national designation.  The real reason for that behavior is, to have a philosophical position for their masses, to prevent the 'foreign' influences in the form of philosophy invading their territory.  For example. Germany has the Nibelungen and the Ring Cycle.  Britain has the Lord of the Rings.  The French possess their own versions influenced by Wagner or in response to him.   One example is by Gabriel Fauré as well as André Messager.   Given that ‘high culture’ often stimulates and dictates thought patterns on the minds of the governance strata members, and sometimes keeps alive ‘chips on shoulders,’ one must not make the mistake of disregarding this category in the decision-making process.  Some old wounds are very difficult to heal, and the said wounds may flare at any moment.  Even the 20th century is full of examples.[xiii]  Other examples include garden architecture, building decorations, poetry, music, dance et al.
 
However, it is much more difficult to emulate others, for ideas must have at least offer a tinge of something new, useful and that will encourage the progress of other thought processes.  For example, a comparison between Kutadgu Bilig[xiv] published in 1069-1070 A.D. and Prince[xv] c. 1515 A.D. may provide an instructive case.  The first one is for the people, advising the ruler to look after his subjects for his own happiness, and is in opposition to the contents of the latter.  This difference in the approaching the problem of governance poses a problem.  Are the differences due to immediate local conditions?  Or, because the Turks had a longer accumulated pool of experiences than the Italians?  Better yet, can the difference be explained by a basic philosophical school?
insan inciyi denizden cikarmadikca, o ister inci olsun -- ister cakiltasi, farketmez
 
Humor may be the easiest medium to discover the philosophy of its creators.  As in most other carriers of philosophy, humor comes in varieties.  Depending on the creating culture, one branch may be more lively source than others.   One must keep two factors in mind when dealing with philosophy in humor.  1. It is the highest level of language competence  2. Without understanding the culture, with historical references, the contents may not make sense at all.[xvi]  The recording of humor and the philosophy it contains is not generally a systematic endeavor.  Mostly it is created on the spot and only a very small percentage is eventually recorded.  Nightly drinking tables became famous for philosophical humor.  However, understanding the published stories requires a thorough knowledge of the circumstances and the language references of the time, including wordplays.[xvii] The stories of Molla Nasreddin, and Keloğlan contain more serious philosophical humor, even when they are funny.[xviii]   
 
Poetry definitely is a carrier of philosophy, though it may be much more difficult to get at the underlying philosophy it contains.  This is especially true for the Central Asian poetry written by the Classical Chaghatay era poets such as Huseyin Baykara[xix], Ali Shir Navai[xx] and Babur[xxi].  Due to their milieu, those poets expressed their philosophies in a rather coded manner, which I call indexing.  A given word in a couplet or quatrain may be central to the understanding of that couplet or quatrain.  And that particular word may have more than one meaning, especially in the direction of the poet's understanding of the world.  During World War I, and even a bit earlier, the objective of the Golden Apple philosophy was advocated in rhyme by Ziya Gokalp.   Except, as always, the parameters of the Golden Apple is completely unknown and remains a fiction to this day.   
 
In the future, the thought process described above, will not change.  Except, that is, the computers will be more intimately participating in the process.   That will have both benefits and drawbacks.  While the words of a proverb or story is perpetuated without loss, the intentional meanings between the lines may well be.  And, usually, those unspoken but roundabout referenced meanings are the real message.  For example "beauty is in the eyes of the beholder" has a double meaning.  The first is a multi-cultural one, and has the flavor of permissiveness.  The second meaning is a rather sharp rebuke, completely dismissing the first party's statement.  This loss may be to the pure benefit of the governance strata, aided by the designer community.[xxii]  In that fashion, positions contra to the platform of the governance strata can be discredited, made inoperable or killed. 
 
In future philosophy, the computers will be taking on more anthropomorphic characteristics to the extent of becoming pseudo-humans.  As such, the computer pseudo-humans will be in a rather advantageous position since their requirements will be more easily men in their environment.  What will make a difference is the skills of the design community.  If the designers are able to endow their creations with the human quality known as 'instinct,' that may also be a triumph of quantum physics.  At that point, the humans may have given up the ultimate command of all action to the computer based constructs.  Then, does philosophy any meaning left for the humans?  Possibly only to accomplish the requirements of the computers.  That may mean a human pledge not to rebel against computer based creations under a philosophical cloak.  That will include the acceptance by humans of the superiority of the smart 'machines.'  That acceptance may be justified on the extant human philosophical conception of 'law of the jungle.'  And the computerized human beings will have the necessary physical and intellectual power to overcome all opposition.
ne ekersen, o'nu bicersin
 
Every major war in Central Asian history has been celebrated with an epic, called dastan.  The major events call for a brand new dastan.  Others can have variants created of old dastans.  The objective is not only to celebrate the victory, and the event itself, but to pass on the lessons learned to future generations.  This is for the benefit of the offspring, to ensure their success as a polity as their forefathers.[xxiii]  During the second half of the Twentieth century, the myth of 'world peace' has captivated some of the populations.  What that belief hides is the fact that competition among polities never cease.  In addition, the basic concepts of thought process can be subverted by parties who are interested in the obverse of what is a description of the true conditions on the ground.[xxiv] 
 
Each polity possesses an objective, whether it is written or only repeated orally; be it based on reality or on myth.  What is important is that, the said objective is in line with the realities of the polity voicing it.[xxv]  The 'Golden Apple' myth is just that; neither realistic, nor beneficial.  It is an amorphous construct, and contains no lineage in the minds.  The case of pan-Turanism, again, was not a construct of the Turks.  "Pan-Turanianism" or "Pan-Turkism," was formulated and initiated in Europe --not in Central Asia-- about the time of the Russian occupation of Tashkent in 1865. The formulation was the brainchild of the Hungarian Orientalist and traveller Arminius Vambery, Professor of Oriental languages. The premise of this notion was that since the overwhelming majority of the Central Asians spoke (and still speak) dialects of Turkish, share the same historical origins and history, "they could form a political entity stretching from the Altai Mountains in Eastern Asia to the Bosphorus," where the capital of the Ottoman Empire was located. This pseudo-doctrine was then attributed to the Turks themselves, and the Russians and Europeans claimed it was a revival of Chinghiz Khan's conquests, a threat not only to Russia, but the whole of Western civilization. It seemed to justify any action against Central Asia, a new "crusade" in the name of self- defense.
 
In fact, the doctrine was not embraced in Central Asia. As it is now known, Vambery was in the service of the British government, at a time when Britain was embroiled in the Great Game. The fear of a resurgent Central Asia was echoed in Leon Cahun's history of the Turks and Mongols the year of the Franco-Russian treaty of 1894 and repeated by the Russians in popular and scholarly publications. It was not until the first decade of the 20th century that the notion was received as a "solution" by small groups of emigres from Central Asia, living in European capitals, who were working to remove the Russian colonialism. Nonetheless, it was a successful public relations ploy for its originators in their dealings with the Western public, and accusations of "Pan- Turkism" can still be heard. It should not be confused with Turks' national consciousness, their desire for cultural revival and political independence based on historical precedent.  The latter, "Turkism," is a benign designation, not any different than English, Irish or French varieties; or the type expressed by the other nationalities of the Ottoman Empire.
 
Thus the Germans' attempt to persuade the Ottoman leadership to embrace this policy before and during World War I reflects Germany's desire to make political use of such a weapon against its enemies, the Russians, by appealing to their Turkish populations. To undermine British control in Central Asia, another doctrine was revived -- Pan-Islam. The Pan-Islamic Movement was an anti-colonial political movement of the late 19th century, and must be distinguished from the "orthodox" Islamic unity of all believers, the umma. Jamal Ad-Din al-Afghani (1839-1897) established the movement in its political form, striving to achieve the political unity of Muslims to fight against colonialism and the colonial powers. It was popular among Indian Muslims and in north Africa. However, the movement also served the colonial powers well. Painted as a reverse-Crusade --without necessarily using the terminology, but through graphic allusions-- the Colonial powers could mobilize both Western public opinion and secret international alliances to fight the "emerging threat." The Germans, after the death of al-Afghani, sought to make that threat as real as possible for the British in India.[xxvi]
 
The Turkistan National liberation War is just that, not an initiative to establish a large empire, but to free themselves from the over lordship of the Russian Empire.  The details of that National Liberation war is available from the pen of one of the major participants and leaders, Z. V. Togan.[xxvii] 
 
Kutadgu Bilig, as it also stands today, lays out the formula which is perhaps most suitable for the organization of a republic; at least in terms the Turks will make use of it.  Additionally, Kutadgu Bilig sets out the principles, leaving sufficient room for the executive branch to make his choices.  The kenges tradition of electing leaders was kept, even perhaps influenced the Soviet period elections in the Soviet Union (except the Soviet restrictions of candidates).[xxviii] 
 
One can suggest, philosophy can be experimental as well as humorous, in the hands of talented teachers.   On a celebrated occasion, which took place over some eight centuries ago, Nasreddin again demonstrates the necessity of experimental science and reasoning: One day Nasreddin brought home three pounds of meat, expecting his wife to cook it for dinner. At dinner-time, Nasreddin finding no meat on the table. He asks his wife, "What happened to the meat?" 
His wife replies, "The cat ate it." Nasreddin breezes into the kitchen, puts the cat on the scales, and discovers the cat to be weighing three pounds. Nasreddin quizzically questions the result, "If the meat I brought home weighed three pounds, then, where is the cat?  And, if this happens to be the cat, then what happened to the meat?"[xxix]
 


 
 
HB Paksoy, ALPAMYSH: Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule (Hartford: AACAR, 1989)
http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/paksoy/
 
[ii] HB Paksoy, Lectures on Central Asia (Malaga: Entelequia, 2005) http://www.eumed.net/entelequia/pdf/b014.pdf
 
[iii] HB Paksoy ("'Alın Yazısı' mı, 'Kişi seçimi' mi? İnançlar ve Düşünce Özgürlügü")  Dusuncelerin Kokenleri (Florence: Carrie/European University Institute, 2006) http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-10/paksoy_dusuncelerin-kokenleri.pdf

[iv] HB Paksoy, Humans on Mars and Beyond (Charleston: Create Space, 2012) http://www.academia.edu/1464674/Humans_on_Mars_and_Beyond_2012
 
[v] Masonic Lodges of today view the stone masons of yesteryear as the precursors of their fraternal order.
 
[vi] HB Paksoy ("Evrim Dusuncesinin Devrimi"  and  "Dunya Degistiren mi, Deger Yargisinda Bulunan mi?) Uzaysal Yonetim Beklerken (Florence: Carrie/European University Institute) http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-12/UZAYSAL%20YONETIM%20BEKLERKEN_Paksoy.pdf
 
[vii] HB Paksoy, "Identity Markers: Uran, Tamga, Dastan"  Transoxiana 8 - Junio 2004 http://www.transoxiana.org/0108/paksoy-identity_markers.html
 
[viii] HB Paksoy, Humans on Mars and Beyond (Charleston: Create Space, 2012) http://www.academia.edu/1464674/Humans_on_Mars_and_Beyond_2012
 
[ix] HB Paksoy, "BASMACHI": Turkistan National Liberation  Movement1916-1930s"  MODERN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIONS IN RUSSIA AND THE SOVIET UNION (FL: Academic International Press) 1991, Vol. 4, Pp. 5-20.  http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-6/cae12.html
Fatih ÖZDEMIR, “KIZILELMA’YI ARAYANÜÇYAZAR: ÖMER SEYFETTIN, ZIYA GÖKALP, RAGIP SEVKI YESIM” Turkish Studies International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic Volume 3/5 Fall 2008
http://turkoloji.cu.edu.tr/YENI%20TURK%20EDEBIYATI/fatih_ozdemir_kizil_elmayi_arayan_uc_yazar.pdf

 

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DOĞU PERİNÇEK’E Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Haziran 19, 2017, 12:53:46 ÖS]


NATO MERMER Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Haziran 17, 2017, 02:16:07 ÖÖ]


ERDEMİR Vakfı yöneticilerine dava açıldı. Gönderen: ahmetdursun
[Haziran 16, 2017, 12:46:14 ÖÖ]


MEŞRUİYET’İN M’Sİ Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Haziran 14, 2017, 02:11:14 ÖÖ]


Yargıtay, Erdemir Vakfı’nın üye ve emeklilerinden yapılan kesintilerin hırsızlık Gönderen: ahmetdursun
[Haziran 13, 2017, 01:31:47 ÖS]


Sanki Katar, Türkiye’yi topun ağzına koymak için seçilmiş, elinden geleni... Gönderen: ahmetdursun
[Haziran 07, 2017, 02:09:43 ÖS]


KATAR-MATAR Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Haziran 07, 2017, 12:55:03 ÖS]


III.ABDULHAMİT’İN 18 BRUMERİ Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mayıs 29, 2017, 04:40:02 ÖÖ]


Şehit polisin arkadaşının kolunda dikkat çeken ayet. Gönderen: ahmetdursun
[Mayıs 28, 2017, 01:22:49 ÖÖ]


Michael Flynn'ın, lobicilik karşılığında aldığı Yarım Milyon Dolar ... Gönderen: ahmetdursun
[Mayıs 28, 2017, 01:14:25 ÖÖ]


Erdoğangiller’e hediye edilen, 25 milyon dolarlık petrol tankeri, Malta Dosyalar Gönderen: ahmetdursun
[Mayıs 28, 2017, 01:09:04 ÖÖ]


Pazarlama Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Mayıs 18, 2017, 03:15:10 ÖS]


İT BAYTARI Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mayıs 12, 2017, 06:02:53 ÖÖ]


Paylaşımcılık Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Mayıs 08, 2017, 02:16:36 ÖS]


AKP’nin yediği haltların sorulularına kim bunların hesabını soracak? Gönderen: ahmetdursun
[Nisan 29, 2017, 02:08:50 ÖS]


MAL MEYDANDA Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 26, 2017, 04:11:12 ÖS]


DEVLET ULUS’A KARŞI (VII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 26, 2017, 05:16:11 ÖÖ]


ERDOĞAN’I VURACAKLAR Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 24, 2017, 11:38:11 ÖS]


Ynt: Sait Başer ile Orhun Âbideleri ve Türk Töresi Üzerine Söyleşi Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Nisan 24, 2017, 06:29:04 ÖÖ]


Ynt: Sait Başer ile Orhun Âbideleri ve Türk Töresi Üzerine Söyleşi Gönderen: ahmetdursun
[Nisan 24, 2017, 12:09:35 ÖÖ]


Sait Başer ile Orhun Âbideleri ve Türk Töresi Üzerine Söyleşi Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Nisan 23, 2017, 04:58:35 ÖS]


DUR BAKALIM N’OLCEK ? Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 20, 2017, 02:12:21 ÖÖ]


DEVLET ULUS’A KARŞI (VI) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 18, 2017, 07:13:24 ÖÖ]


HAYIRLI OLSUN ! Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 17, 2017, 05:36:37 ÖS]


DEVLET ULUS’A KARŞI (V) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 14, 2017, 05:04:59 ÖÖ]


DEVLET ULUS’A KARŞI (IV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 12, 2017, 07:25:38 ÖS]


AÇIK MEKTUP Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 10, 2017, 05:16:36 ÖS]


Ynt: Uzaysal Yönetim 2011 MD göktaşının dünya yakınından geçmesinin anımsattığı Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Nisan 08, 2017, 07:54:54 ÖS]


DEVLET ULUS’A KARŞI (III) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 08, 2017, 03:37:34 ÖÖ]


DEVLET ULUS’A KARŞI (II) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 04, 2017, 02:41:12 ÖÖ]


PARLAMENTARİZMİN P’Sİ Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Nisan 01, 2017, 05:23:41 ÖS]


DEVLET ULUSA KARŞI Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 30, 2017, 11:15:00 ÖÖ]


URKUN Kirgizistandan bir ses Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Mart 27, 2017, 05:45:34 ÖÖ]


PISIRIKLIK FELSEFESİ Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 21, 2017, 03:31:55 ÖÖ]


TRUMP ÖĞRETİSİ ve YENİ DÜNYA Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 19, 2017, 08:44:03 ÖS]


DESTİCİ’NİN TESTİSİ Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 16, 2017, 05:07:50 ÖÖ]


Başkaldırma ve Yarışma Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Mart 14, 2017, 11:43:46 ÖS]


SON ABDÜLHAMİT Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 13, 2017, 12:59:22 ÖS]


HOLLANDA-MOLLANDA Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 12, 2017, 05:33:20 ÖÖ]


KATİL KUMA Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 08, 2017, 07:33:26 ÖÖ]


ULUSAL ÖZGÜRLÜK VE ADALET PROGRAMI (IV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 05, 2017, 07:07:15 ÖS]


ULUSAL ÖZGÜRLÜK VE ADALET PROGRAMI (III) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 04, 2017, 07:40:35 ÖS]


N’OLACAK ŞU IRAK’IN HALİ ? Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 04, 2017, 02:17:40 ÖÖ]


ULUSAL ÖZGÜRLÜK VE ADALET PROGRAMI (II) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Mart 02, 2017, 05:20:46 ÖÖ]


ULUSAL ÖZGÜRLÜK VE ADALET PROGRAMI Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 28, 2017, 11:56:51 ÖS]


MODA MİLLİYETÇİLİK (II) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 27, 2017, 11:54:46 ÖS]


MODA MİLLİYETÇİLİK Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 24, 2017, 01:01:36 ÖÖ]


NEDEN DEĞİL, ‘NASIL’ BİR HAYIR Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 22, 2017, 01:07:56 ÖÖ]


KRİZİN K’SI (II) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 20, 2017, 12:39:51 ÖÖ]


KRİZİN K’SI Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 18, 2017, 03:13:46 ÖS]


FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK (VIII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 17, 2017, 11:50:31 ÖS]


FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK (VII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 17, 2017, 02:43:04 ÖS]


FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK (VI) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 17, 2017, 01:14:00 ÖÖ]


FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK (V) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 16, 2017, 04:59:09 ÖS]


FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK (IV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 16, 2017, 12:42:46 ÖÖ]


FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK (III) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 15, 2017, 01:41:35 ÖS]


Ynt: Söz Bakımından, Allah dan daha Doğru Kim Vardır? Gönderen: tolonbey
[Şubat 14, 2017, 08:27:26 ÖS]


Ynt: ABDULHAMİT SEVDASI (III) Gönderen: tolonbey
[Şubat 14, 2017, 08:09:46 ÖS]


FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK (II) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 14, 2017, 06:59:25 ÖS]


Ynt: FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 14, 2017, 02:37:37 ÖS]


FRANSA’DA BAŞKANLIK Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 14, 2017, 06:49:12 ÖÖ]


BÜYÜTME POLİTİKALARI Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 09, 2017, 01:51:07 ÖÖ]


Ynt: Uzaysal Yönetim 2011 MD göktaşının dünya yakınından geçmesinin anımsattığı Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Şubat 08, 2017, 11:03:36 ÖS]


BOYKOT MU DEDİNİZ ? Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 08, 2017, 04:36:37 ÖS]


ROMANYA’DA NELER OLUYOR ? Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 07, 2017, 03:07:57 ÖÖ]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR (X) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 06, 2017, 02:43:22 ÖS]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR (IX) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 04, 2017, 03:37:54 ÖS]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR (VIII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 02, 2017, 09:11:32 ÖS]


SIC SEMPER TYRANNIS Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 02, 2017, 02:16:28 ÖÖ]


TÜRKİYE-SURİYE İLİŞKİLERİ ÜZERİNE Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Şubat 01, 2017, 01:40:59 ÖÖ]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR (VII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 30, 2017, 10:00:19 ÖS]


TÜRKİYE’YE BABALIK MI ? Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 30, 2017, 12:57:01 ÖÖ]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR (VI) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 26, 2017, 04:12:44 ÖÖ]


Ynt: Uzaysal Yönetim 2011 MD göktaşının dünya yakınından geçmesinin anımsattığı Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Ocak 26, 2017, 03:20:16 ÖÖ]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR ? (V) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 25, 2017, 05:53:17 ÖS]


Ynt: Amerikalik mashhur tarixchi olim Hasan Bulent Paksoy Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Ocak 25, 2017, 02:27:35 ÖÖ]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR ? (IV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 24, 2017, 07:39:39 ÖS]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR ? (III) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 24, 2017, 01:22:30 ÖÖ]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR ? (II) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 23, 2017, 03:40:40 ÖS]


Ynt: Karlovy Vary sehri 98 yildir reklamini « Mustafa Kemal Ataturk »’le yapiyor. Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Ocak 22, 2017, 08:53:36 ÖS]


FELSEFENİN F’Sİ Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 22, 2017, 06:42:12 ÖS]


AVRASYACILIK NEDİR NE DEĞİLDİR? Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 21, 2017, 12:12:10 ÖÖ]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (XI) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 20, 2017, 05:36:33 ÖÖ]


Ynt: Mustafa KemaL ATATÜRK, Kitap Arşivi. (indir) Gönderen: levo57
[Ocak 19, 2017, 05:44:08 ÖS]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (X) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 18, 2017, 10:15:36 ÖS]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (IX) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 17, 2017, 11:45:56 ÖS]


18 MADDELİK YENİ ANAYASA TASLAĞI Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 17, 2017, 04:06:59 ÖÖ]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (VIII) Kültürel Antroploji ‘Evrimcilik’ düşüncesine karşı çık Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 14, 2017, 12:45:12 ÖÖ]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (VII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 12, 2017, 11:29:35 ÖS]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (VI) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 12, 2017, 01:51:44 ÖÖ]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (V) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 11, 2017, 12:14:25 ÖÖ]


Ynt: Uzaysal Yönetim 2011 MD göktaşının dünya yakınından geçmesinin anımsattığı Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Ocak 10, 2017, 06:05:33 ÖÖ]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (IV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 09, 2017, 11:17:27 ÖS]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (III) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 08, 2017, 10:49:34 ÖS]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR (II) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 07, 2017, 12:19:03 ÖÖ]


DİL ÜZERİNE NOTLAR Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 06, 2017, 02:40:39 ÖÖ]


MİLLİYETÇİLİK VE MİLLETÇİLİK Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 05, 2017, 12:28:53 ÖS]


BAKIŞ/GÖRÜŞ/GÖRÜNÜŞ (XXVII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 03, 2017, 01:58:11 ÖS]


BAKIŞ/GÖRÜŞ/GÖRÜNÜŞ (XXVI) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 02, 2017, 01:49:38 ÖS]


"Sokma akıl, dokuz adım gider" Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Ocak 02, 2017, 04:48:06 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ/GÖRÜŞ/GÖRÜNÜŞ (XXV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Ocak 01, 2017, 04:27:12 ÖS]


BAKIŞ/GÖRÜŞ/GÖRÜNÜŞ (XXIV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 31, 2016, 02:41:29 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ/GÖRÜŞ/GÖRÜNÜŞ (XXIII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 30, 2016, 01:24:31 ÖS]


BAKIŞ-GÖRÜŞ-GÖRÜNÜŞ (XXII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 28, 2016, 09:33:32 ÖS]


BAKIŞ-GÖRÜŞ-GÖRÜNÜŞ (XXI) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 28, 2016, 03:00:50 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ-GÖRÜŞ-GÖRÜNÜŞ (XX) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 27, 2016, 01:35:17 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ-GÖRÜŞ-GÖRÜNÜŞ (XIX) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 26, 2016, 02:20:36 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ-GÖRÜŞ-GÖRÜNÜŞ (XVIII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 25, 2016, 02:47:09 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ-GÖRÜŞ-GÖRÜNÜŞ (XVII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 24, 2016, 12:33:18 ÖÖ]


BBBBO (2009) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 21, 2016, 03:26:27 ÖS]


BAKIŞ-GÖRÜŞ-GÖRÜNÜŞ (XVI) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 20, 2016, 06:55:10 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ-GÖRÜŞ-GÖRÜNÜŞ (XV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 19, 2016, 02:01:35 ÖÖ]


Ynt: Humans on Mars (full text attached) Gönderen: PLMPLM
[Aralık 16, 2016, 12:38:33 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ /GÖRÜŞ GÖRÜNÜŞ (XIV) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 15, 2016, 04:18:01 ÖÖ]


BAKIŞ /GÖRÜŞ GÖRÜNÜŞ (XIII) Gönderen: Habip Hamza Erdem
[Aralık 13, 2016, 03:03:00 ÖS]